The Y-Chromosome

Copyright © August 2004, Revised 2005, 2006, 2015
Mary Fern Souder

The Y-chromosome is present in all males. It is passed from father to son, and is identical unless a mutation occurs on one or more of the markers. Although mutations are not common, they can occur in any generation. It is thought that the rate of mutations varies, depending on the marker, haplogroup, and family.

A male will have Y-chromosome markers that are the same or are very nearly identical to that of his paternal ancestry many generations back in time. Thus two men who can trace through an unbroken chain of male ancestry back to a common male ancestor will have very similar markers.

An additional test, the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism "SNP" test (commonly pronounced snip test), can be conducted in order to determine the actual haplogroup of each male participant. In the interest of cost containment, I have not asked that this test be performed for all participants. FamilyTreeDNA can make an educated guess as to which haplogroup these men fall into. The designation that is listed in black on the extreme right hand side of the DYS numbers, is their predicted haplogroup. Caution must therefore be used in accepting these haplogroup designations. A SNP test has been conducted to determine the actual haplogroup of some of the participants. It is shown at the extreme right hand of the DYS numbers in bold red print.

The distance between the earliest mentioned ancestor and the participant is measured by "transmission events." A transmission event is a birth. There is one transmission event from father to son. There are two transmission events from grandfather to grandson, etc. It is the technical term used by geneticists to describe generational distance.

It is not my intention to become the leader of an official Surname Project for each of the surnames tested in our family. As projects begin for the surnames in our family, our results will be added to that official project. To see those families, for which DNA projects have begun, please go to FTDNA and click on "Surname Projects."

If you want to participate in these studies, please sign up at the appropriate surname study. If you are a member of our family and would like to contribute a Y-chromosome sample, and there is no established Y-chromosome study of that name, you may obtain a kit at the following Souder site: Souder DNA. All of our results for that surname will be transferred to the official Surname Project when it is formed.

Last Updated on 10/3/2015
By Wallace W. Souder