DYS Numbers  
Kit # A                                                     Y Y               H
N                                                     G C C               A
C                                                     A A A               P
E                   3   3                             T         C C     L
S         3 3       8   8   4 4             4 4 4 4   A I I         D D     O
T 3 3   3 8 8 4 3 4 9 3 9 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 4 I I 4 6 5 5 Y Y 4 4 G
O 9 9 1 9 5 5 2 8 3 | 9 | 5 9 9 5 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 H     5 0 7 7   4 3 R
R 3 0 9 1 a b 6 8 9 1 2 2 8 a b 5 4 7 7 8 9 a b c d 0 4 a b 6 7 6 0 a b 2 8 P
  Group 1
1968 Job Pendergrass b. 1753 13 24 16 10 11 14 12 10 11 13 11 30 14 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 12 11 19 23 16 15 17 20 33 40 12 11 R1a1
4448 Job Pendergrass b. 1753 13 24 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 29 14 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 11 19 23 16 15 17 20 33 40 12 11 R1a1
20901 Job Pendergrass b 1753 13 26 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 14 8 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 12 15 15 11 11 19 23 15 15 18 20 33 40 12 11 R1a1
20906 Job Pendergrass b. 1753 13 24 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 14 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 12 11 19 23 16 15 17 20 33 40 12 11 R1a1
43664 Job Pendergrass b. 1753 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 14 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 10 11 19 23 16 15 18 20 33 39 12 11 R1a1
43660 Job Pendergrass b. 1753 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 14 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 11 19 23 16 15 17 20 33 40 12 11 R1a1
116169 Prendergast 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 14 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 11 19 24 17 15 18 20 34 39 12 11 R1a1
102545 George Prendergast b. c. 1775 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 10 19 24 15 15 19 21 33 39 12 11 R1a1
50946 Maurice de Prendergast d. 1205 13 25 15 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 10 19 24 15 15 19 21 33 40 12 11 R1a1
13910 James Prendergast b. c. 1930 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 32 12 15 15 16                         R1a1
114288 Thomas Prendergast b. 1797 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 32 12 15 15 16 11 11 19 24 16 15 18 20 34 39 12 11 R1a1
85440 John Pendergast b. 1837 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 32 12 15 15 16 12 11 19 24 16 15 17 19 34 39 12 11 R1a1
66304 John Prendergast b 1797 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 12 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 11 19 24 16 15 19 20 33 41 12 11 R1a1
43111 Patrick Prendergast b. 1781 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 12 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 11 19 24 16 15 20 20 33 41 12 11 R1a1
3376 Edmund Penders b.c. 1814 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 31 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 9 19 24 15 15 19 21 33 39 12 11 R1a1
N5402 Thomas Prendergast b. 1783 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 31 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 10 19 24 16 15 19 21 33 39 12 11 R1a1
  Proposed Sequence of Modal Haplotype for Group 1 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 31 12 15 15 16 11 11 19 24 16 15 18 or 19 20 or 21 33 39 or 40 12 11 R1a1
  Group 2
13909 James Prendergast, b. ca. 1820 13 25 16 10 ## 16 11 13 11 12 11 28 17 8 9 10 12 24 15 18 28 14 14 15 15                         I
  Group 3
28400 John Pendergrass b. by 1741 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 15 17 17                         R1b1
31191 John Pendergrass b. by 1741 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 15 17 17                         R1b1
30906 John Pendergrass b. by 1741 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 15 15 17                         R1b1
37387 John Pendergrass b. by 1741 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 15 15 17                         R1b1
37388 John Pendergrass b. by 1741 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 15 15 17                         R1b1
30905 John Prendergrass b. ca. 1757 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 15 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 15 17 17                         R1b1
  Group 4
3375 John Pendors b. ca. 1800 13 24 14 10 12 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 9 11 11 25 14 19 30 14 15 15 17                         R1b1
27123 John Pendors b. ca.1800 13 24 14 10 12 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 19 9 9 11 11 25 14 19 30 14 15 15 17                         R1b1
  Group 5
85629 William Pender b. ca. 1785 13 24 13 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 27 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 37 37 12 12 I
  Group 6
106764 Patrick Pendergast b. ca. 1816 13 24 14 10 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 14 15 16 17 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 17 37 38 12 12 R1b1
  Group 7
38500 Edwin Prendergast, b. by 1810 13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17 11 11 19 23 15 15 18 17 36 37 12 12 R1b1
  Group 8
114080 Pinder 14 23 15 10 15 16 11 13 13 13 12 31 15 8 10 11 11 24 14 20 27 11 12 14 15                         ---
  Group 9
127423 Pendergast 14 23 14 10 11 14 12 12 13 14 13 32                                                   R1b12

The DYS Numbers in red have shown a faster mutation rate than the average, and therefore these markers are very helpful at splitting lineages into subsets, or branches, within a family tree. DYS 19 is also known as DYS 394. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) test, which is used to confirm the haplogroup, has been performed on the haplogroups written in bold, red print in the right hand column. It is necessary to do a SNP (commonly called “snip”) test for only one individual within a family group in order to determine the haplogroup for everyone in the group.

Copyright © December 2003, Revised 2005, 2006, 2008
Mary Fern Souder

For ease of comparison, a preliminary pedigree is given at the beginning of each group for each man who participated in the study.

Group 1:

Participant 1968: Job Pendergrass b. 1753 +2 Mary > Moses Pendergrass b. 1793 NC + Margaret Mashburn > Wesley Powell Pendergraft b. 1828 + Ellen Rose > Thomas Jasper Pendergraft b. 1851 + Margaret Spurlock

Participant 4448: Job Pendergrass b. 1753 +2 Mary > Moses Pendergrass b. 1793 NC+ Margaret Mashburn > Wesley Powell Pendergraft b. 1828 + Ellen Rose > Moses Pendergraft b. 1856 + Lucinda Schell

Participant 20901: Job Pendergrass b. 1753 +2 Mary > Henry James Pendergrass b. 1802 NC + Mary Beaver > Paul Pendergraft b. 1848 + Martha Walden > Madison Monroe Pendergraft + Laura Ellen Huffmaster

Participant 20906: Job Pendergrass b.1753 +2 Mary > Moses Pendergrass b. 1793 NC + Margaret Mashburn > Wesley Powell Pendergraft b. 1828 + Ellen Rose > Thomas Jasper Pendergraft b. 1851 + Margaret Spurlock

Participant 43664: Job Pendergrass b. 1753 +2 Mary > Thomas Pendergrass b. 1798 NC +1 Margaret > Joseph James Pendergraft b.c. 1830 NC + Ann "Nancy" > Ellis Webster Pendergraft b. 1858 MO + Martha Fletcher

Participant 43660: Job Pendergrass b. 1753 +1 Nancy Edwards > Charnal Pendergrass b. ca. 1780 NC, d. 1878 IA +1 Unknown > Job Pendergraft, II, b. ca. 1810 NC, d. 1912 IA + Mary Ann Alloway > Wilson Albert Pendergraft b. 1840 TN, d. 1870 IA + Sarah Jane Ames

Participant 116169: Pedigree pending

Participant 102545: George Prendergast b. 1775 Ireland + Mary Meagher > Joeffrey Prendergast b. 1800 Ireland + Mary Haynes > George Palmyra Prendergast b. 1831 aboard ship Palmyra, bound for island of Ceylon + Mary O'Connell

Participant 50946: Maurice de Prendergast accompanied Strongbow's invasion of Ireland in 1169, d. 1205 > Philip de Prendergast d. 1226 + Maud de Quincy > Sir William de Prendergast + Alianore de Bermingham > Jeffrey de Prendergast d. 1289 > Sir Philip de Prendergast > Maurice de Prendergast > John de Prendergast + dau. of O'Hartigan> Elias de Prendergast, Lord of Newcastle > to 23rd generation

Participant 13910: James Prendergast, b. ca. 1930, of County Mayo, Ireland

Participant 114288: Thomas Prendergast, b. 1796, of County Mayo + Bridged Killkeen, b. 1796 County Mayo, Ireland.

Participant 66304: John Prendergrast, b. 1789, Ireland + Bridget Lyons > Thomas L. Prendergast b. 1839 County Mayo, Ireland + Julia Keenan > Thomas Francis Prendergast b. 1869 IL + Celia Marcella Cain > Everett Francis Prendergast b. 1907 IA + Grace F. McKenney

Participant 43111: Patrick Prendergast, b. ca. 1781 Ballyfarnagh, County Mayo + Mary > Michael Prendergast b. ca. 1818 + Sarah Halligan > Patrick Thomas Prendergast b. 1868 + Delia Kilkenny

Participant 3376: Thomas Prendergast b. 1783 Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland + Mary Murphy > John Prendergast b. 1816 + Jane Mucahy > Michael Fitzmaurice Prendergast b. 1867

Group 1:

My Pendergraft family in the United States traces its lineage from one James Prendergast, born ca. 1640, who immigrated ca. 1668, and lived in Middlesex County, VA. His wife, Mary, died there in 1715. According to legends that have been passed down in several branches of the family during the past 350 years, Ireland was the birthplace of James Prendergast.

On a trip to Ireland in the fall of 2003, we could not let the opportunity pass without at least trying to obtain DNA samples to compare with Pendergraft members of our family who live in the U.S. As novices in Irish history, we simply consulted "A Guide to Irish Surnames," 1964, by Edward Mac Lysaght. His "Irish Family Names Map" shows Ireland's principal families and the location of their lands from the 14th century to the 17th century, following the Cambro-Norman Invasion (also known as the Anglo-Norman Invasion). This map shows that Prendergasts were settled in two areas in Ireland: the southeastern part of County Mayo and the southern part of County Tipperary. Mac Lysaght states that descendents of this powerful family are still found mainly in the places of their original settlement.

With no other guidelines, we set out to locate persons in these areas in small villages where it would be likely that people would be well known to each other. We drove to a village in each these two areas, and asked at a hotel or restaurant if there were any Prendergasts in the area who were older and liked history. At each place, we were immediately directed to a family of this surname, and both families welcomed us and were happy to discuss their lineage and to participate in a larger Prendergast DNA research effort.

The hostile Cambro-Norman invasion of Ireland in May of 1169, led by Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, was a defining episode which forever changed the lives of the Irish people. One of the leaders who played a prominent role in this invasion was a Welshman, Maurice de Prendergast. Irish historians believe that he was the ancestor of those who live in Ireland today who bear the Prendergast surname. Patrick Hanks and Flavia Hodges, in "A Dictionary of Surnames," Oxford University Press, 1996, state that "it is possible that many, if not all, present-day Prendergasts are descended from him and his wife, who was a Fitzgerald. William Prendergast, youngest son of Maurice, acquired New Castle near Clonmel in Tipperary, which was the family seat for several centuries." (Other historians believe William was the son of Maurice's son, Philip de Prendergast, and thus a grandson of Maurice).

Although some of the descendents of Maurice were able to preserve relatively prominent positions in Ireland for centuries, during the intervening 850 years most have become fully assimilated into everyday life in Ireland. We are fortunate that a pedigree for some of the prominent descendents of Maurice de Prendergast has been preserved. This family is presented in "The Prendergasts," 2005, by Rollo Hume D.'Auvergne Prendergast, and a copy of this book may be obtained at: The documentation for "The Prendergasts" was based on a manuscript entitled "Notes on the Prendergast Family collected and copied for John Patrick Prendergast by his kinsman and obliged friend, Gort." Gort was the 4th Viscount Gort, and his notes were written in 1879. (John Patrick Prendergast was born in Dublin in 1808 and was the author of "The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland," a book which is still regarded as the definitive account of Cromwell's previously undocumented inhuman treatment of the Irish).

A descendent who traces his pedigree from one of the lineages presented in "The Prendergasts" has joined our DNA study, as Participant # 50946. His results give credence to the hypothesis that all of the men in Group 1 are descendents of Maurice de Prendergast (or relatives of Maurice who, although not mentioned in history, might have accompanied Maurice in the invasion).

A history of one of the Prendergast families from the Clonmel region, family seat of the Prendergasts, and where William de Prendergast (youngest son, or grandson, of Maurice) acquired New Castle, may be seen at: Prendergast of Clonmel.

There are numerous legal documents that verify the evolution of the American surname Prendergast to Pendergrass to Pendergraft by some branches of the family. Perhaps there are other versions of spelling as well, such as Pendergraff. Mac Lysaght states that Pender, Penders Pendy, and Pinder are also forms of this surname that are currently in use in Ireland. A website that includes two different Penders and Pendors families may be seen at: Pender DNA.

Several historians have chronicled the history of the immigrant, James Prendergast, born ca. 1640. A comprehensive overview of this family, "Pendergrass of Virginia and the Carolinas," was compiled and written by Allen Pendergraft, born ca. 1919, Ralph P. Carroll, publisher, 1976. Allen was a professional artist with a studio in Sedona, AZ, who retired to Alamos, Sonora, Mexico, by 1990. Allen collaborated with the late Dixie Pendergraft Sollock, professor emeritus of history at Northeastern State College in Oklahoma (now NSU), and Dr. Charles Augustus Pendergraft, Jr., of Richmond, VA. This group of researchers built on a previous family history written by Dr. William "Carroll" Pendergraft, M.D., of Hollis, OK, born 1864, and Dr. Allen Pendergraft, a superintendent of schools, who were cousins and classmates at Washington University in St. Louis, MO.

"Pendergrass of Virginia and North Carolina" does not site source references for some of the alleged early family connections in Virginia and North Carolina. I have not personally examined any documents dating 1640-1750, upon which the above researchers based their conclusion that my ancestor, Job Pendergrass, was a great grandson of James Prendergast, born 1640. However, I can certify the accuracy of the lineage paper trail beginning with my ancestor, Job Pendergrass, born 1753.

Job Pendergrass lived in Orange and Burke Counties, NC, and enlisted in the Revolutionary War in 1776, serving in the 10th Regiment of the NC Continental Line. He was transferred to Rhodes' Company, which fought in New Jersey and New York. In 1779 he reenlisted at Chatham County, NC, and was placed in Capt. Roger Moore's Company, James Thraxton's Regiment of the NC Continental line. For the next three years he fought mainly in South Carolina, in some of the fiercest battles of the War. Job's pension for his military service was in force until his death in 1831, in what is now McDowell County, NC.

The Pendergraft family is a close one, and maintains a large communication network among the extended kin. I am deeply grateful to many cousins who have collaborated in the study of the 20th century Pendergrafts and it would be impossible for me to mention here all those I love. Those whose work has been especially helpful include Mary Pendergraft Southards, Verla Manz, Roberta Claborn, Lorene Pendergraft Mahan, the late Crystal Eubanks Todd, Diana Thibodeau, the late Margaret Thouvenal Barrick, Millie Booth, Deanna Reynolds, Linda Friend Lewis, the late Irene Jones Topping, the late Opal Jones Sears, Joyce Weber, Betty Pendergraft King, Harold Mahan, Troy Pendergraft, Palma Pendergraft Heede, Karen Brandon, Charmaine Reel Ernst, and Sandra Pendergraft Rowley. The most devoted keeper of Pendergraft history that I know has been my mother, Fern Pendergraft Vanpool.

Analysis of DNA Testing - Group 1:

It appears that all of the men in Group 1 share a remote common ancestor, and the robust paper trail of those residing in the United States documents a relatively close relationship. The results obtained for the first three participants who descend from Job Pendergrass were very discouraging. The mutation rate was much higher than is normally expected for their degree of kinship. Participants 1968 and 4448 are second cousins, while Participant 20901 is a fourth cousin to Participants 1968 and 4448. Each of these three men is only five transmission events from their common ancestor, Job Pendergrass, born in 1753.

In order to better understand the mutation rate in this study, the data for the descendents of Job Pendergrass was submitted to Charles Kerchner for a Y-STR (Y-Short Tandem Repeat) Mutation Rate Study. As part of that project Kerchner developed a protocol for displaying the data. The key first step of that process is to arrange the descendents' test data in birth order of the sons of the earliest known ancestor (Job Pendergrass). Some genetic genealogists have noticed a slight increase in mutations for sons born to older fathers, and arranging sons of the earliest ancestor in order of birth makes this easier to spot. Kerchner Chart

The second step is to deduce the ancestral haplotype of the ancestor using the triangulation method. The third step is to determine the unique mutations, and the fourth and final step is to calculate the mutation for that line. Mr. Kerchner believes that mutation rates are male-line specific, and that male haplogroups are male-line specific.

An important step in Kerchner's analysis is rearranging the multicopy markers to show the true number of mutations that have occurred. An example of a multicopy marker is DYS 464 a, b, c, and d. For ease of reporting, the laboratory simply arranges the values in numerical order. However, these are not discreet positions and need to be rearranged into like copies.

Group 1 in this study falls into Haplogroup R1a1. Kerchner's research has found that Haplogroup R1a has a mutation rate two times higher than any other haplogroup that he has analyzed. Within Haplogroup R1a, the Pendergrass project has the highest mutation rate of all surnames he has studied. It should be noted that the Pendergrass mutation rate, although extremely high, is still within the norm for the kinship that actually exists among the participants. One may view the mutation rates for the haplogroups that Kerchner has studied here: Kerchner Case Studies. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click to view the various surnames Kerchner has analyzed. The mutation rate for the descendants of Job Pendergrass is 0.0125.

Kerchner has developed his mutation rate analysis and published the observed mutation rates in order to assist the genetic genealogy community in obtaining mutation data based on proven lineages. He volunteers his services in this endeavor, and will gladly assist other DNA surname studies provided the pedigrees are substantiated with documentary evidence. He can be reached at

Modal Haplotype is a term used to describe the original sequence of the DYS numbers of the founding father of the family. In other words, the farther up the family tree you go, the more you are going to see the original sequence of the DYS numbers.

One can see that the DYS numbers of Participant 13910 of Ireland are very similar to those of Participants 1968, 4448, and 20901 (each descending from Job), although none are a perfect match with each other. A scientist at Family Tree DNA examined these results and explained that if we knew what the modal haplotype was, the number and degree of mutations might not seem so significant. For example, if the modal number for DYS # 390 is 25, then Participants 1968 and 4448 have only a one-step mutation from that modal number, and Participant 20901 is also only one step from that modal number. Then the important factor is not that they are two mutations apart, but that they have each mutated only one step from the Modal Number.

The day next a representative of Family Tree DNA telephoned to say that another man, surnamed Penders, had tested independently before this study was begun, and that he was a close relative to our group. Mr. Penders most closely matched Participant 13910 from Ireland, and his DYS numbers, when compared to the other four participants, suggested what the modal haplotype might have been. The Proposed Sequence of the Modal Haplotype is given on the bottom line of Group 1. The mutations that deviate from the Proposed Sequence of the Modal Haplotype have been highlighted in blue. In the meantime, the results of additional participants have corroborated the FTDNA Modal Haplogroup prediction.

The results of up to 37 markers are shown on the above chart. Some participants have upgraded to the 67-marker test, but these results are not posted here due to space limitations. The results of the 67 marker test may be viewed at the Pendergraft / Prendergast / Pender public site: Pendergraft Public Site.

Markers 464 A, B, C, and D are treated as infinite allele markers, so one does not have to read them in sequence. The important factor is that each of the participants has the numbers 12, 15, 15 and 16 somewhere within DYS 464. Also, Participant 20901's value of 12 on DYS 464b is read as one single mutation, rather than a three-step mutation.

After the initial analysis was done, and the Proposed Sequence of the Modal Haplotype was established, it was possible to obtain three more volunteers who descend from Job. Participant 20906 is a first cousin to Participant 1968. One can see that this participant's results have substantiated the likelihood of the proposed modal haplotype. He does not have the unique mutation on DYS 439 of his first cousin, nor does he have the unique mutation on DYS 389-2 of his second cousin, Participant 4448.

Participant 43664 descends from yet another son of Job Pendergrass and his second wife, Mary, and is a fourth cousin from every other participant (excepting Participant 43660 to whom he is a fourth cousins once removed). His results further corroborate the proposed haplogroup.

Participant 43660 descends from Job through Job's first wife, Nancy Edwards. His results also more closely confirm to the Modal Haplotype. These latter two sets of results have a value of 25 on DYS 390, the same for all of the Irish participants. This underscores the need to obtain as many participants as possible in surname studies.

Note that the defining markers for the Job Pendergrass descendents seem to be a 14 on DYS 458, and a 23 on DYS AIIB. Even though more recent results are very close to the Modal Haplotype, the descendents of Job still average a higher than usual mutation rate when compared to some other surname studies.

Assuming that the lineage from James Prendergast, born ca. 1640 is correct, there have been nine transmission events between James Prendergast, b. ca. 1640, and the first five descendents listed above, and 10 transmission events between Job and Participant # 43660. I can document five transmission events between Job Pendergrass, born 1753, and each of the first five descendents listed above, and six transmission events between Job and Participant # 43660.

In attempting to construct the Modal Haplotype for markers 26-37, the assumption was made that the participants with the most recent ties to Ireland more nearly represent the Modal Haplotype in most cases. This assumption was made because it seems likely that these men are more distantly related to each other that the participants who can all trace their lineage back to Job Pendergrass, born in the United States in 1753.

Participants 1968 and 43111 have had SNP tests conducted, and the haplogroup for each has been determined to be R1a1, which means that they tested positive for M17, and negative for SRY10831.2. Participant 43111 also ordered the R1a Deep SNP test, which tests for R, R1, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1b, R1a1c, and R2. The results for Participant 43111 were: M17+ M198+ M207+ M124- M157- M269- M343- M56- M87- P25- SRY10831.2- (+ = positive and - = negative). For information concerning Deep SNP tests, see SNP Tests.

Although the men in this study with direct ties to Ireland have no documentation that connects them to each other, the DNA results prove that they did share a common ancestor. This discovery is so significant that biographies, provided by their descendents, follow:

Participant 102545: George Prendergast was born ca. 1775 in Ireland, and married Mary Meagher. They were the parents of Joeffrey Prendergast, born ca. 1800 in Ireland, who married Mary Haynes. Joeffrey and Mary were the parents of George Palmyra Prendergast who was born 23 April 1831. The following bibliography for George Palmyra is taken from the "Encyclopedia of the History of St. Louis, (MO)" Hyde and Conard, Editors.

"Prendergast, George Palmyra, who has been one of the builders of St. Louis in more senses than one, was born April 21, 1831 on board the ship "Palmyra," bound for the Island of Ceylon. His parents were Jeffrey and Mary (Haynes) Prendergast, both natives of Ireland, and born of good families. His paternal grandmother, whose name was Mary Meagher before her marriage, belonged to the family which gave to America the distinguished soldier, General Thomas F. Meagher. . . Mr. Prendergast spent the early years of his life in Ireland. . . In 1846 he came to this country, a boy of 15 years of age, and soon after landing in New York, where he served his apprenticeship, he emigrated to Virginia, and from there he came to St. Louis. . . Prior to the Civil War he served as a member of the military organization known as the Washington Guard, famous in its day, and during the war was enrolled in the State militia, subject to military duty . . . His religious affiliations are with the Catholic Church, and he is a member of the Catholic Knights of America, and of the American Legion of Honor. He married July 29, 1860, Miss Mary O'Connell, of St. Louis. Ten children have been born of this union, of whom seven are now living, named respectively, Mary A, now Mrs. Chamberlain; Ellen, wife of Dr. Frank Ring, Joeffrey, Thomas, Edward, and Susan Prendergast." (sic-only six children are listed, and it appears that son George was inadvertently omitted).

An undated newspaper clipping from a St. Louis newspaper gives the following obiturary for George Palmyra Prendergast: "He was born on April 31, 1831 on board the English ship, Palmyra near the island of Ceylon, and lived in the Orient until he was more fluent in the native language than in his own. His middle name, Palmyra, denoted his birthplace. His parents returned with him to Ireland where George lived from 1841 to 1847. He then came to America where he settled in Brooklyn . . . He came to St. Louis in 18?? (illegible), hence had lived here half a century . . . He married here a Miss Oconnor (sic--O'Connell) and leaves several grown children. He was related to the distinguished warrior of his own name in the English army and to Gen. Francis Meagher of fighting fame in our civil war."

Participant 50946: A pedigree has been preserved for some of the descendents of Maurice de Prendergast, the leader who accompanied Strongbow in the invasion of Ireland in 1159, and a descendent of this family has chosen to participate in the DNA study. A commentary, including footnotes, and a descendency chart is presented in the book "The Prendergasts," mentioned above, and available through Maurice Descendency. There have been 23 transmission events between Maurice de Prendergast and Participant # 50946.

Participant 116169: Pedigree pending.

Participant 13910: James Prendergast was born ca. 1930, of County Mayo, Ireland. The sample was obtained by the Souders on a visit to County Mayo in 2003. James Prendergast, father of Participant 13910, died in his early 20's, when the participant was only a baby. The participant did not know the name of James' father, and no additional information is available for his family.

Participant 114288: Thomas Prendergast was born in 1797 in County Mayo, Ireland. He married Bridget Killeen, who was born in 1796 in County Mayo. They were the parents of James Prendergast, born 1840 in County Mayo, who married Jane Ansbro, born in 1845 in County, Mayo. James and Jane had some children who immigrated to the United States, while some of their children remained in the home townland. Participant 114288 still resides in Ireland.

Participant 66304: John Prendergast was born in 1797 in Ireland. He married Bridget Lyons in County Mayo during November 1823. She was born about 1804 in Ireland. They lived in Ballintaffy, a Townland in the northwest of Kilcolman parish, about four miles west of Ballyfarnagh, County Mayo. It is not known when John and Bridget and the family immigrated to America; they first appeared, with their family, on the 1860 US Census for La Salle County, IL. John was a farmer and purchased land in Osage Township in LaSalle County. They are believed to have arrived there between 1850 and 1853. John and Bridget had three sons and two daughters: Mary b. ca. 1830, Patrick b. ca. 1834, John b. ca. 1836, Thomas L. b. 1839, and Bridget b. ca. 1840. All of the children were born in Ireland and the entire family immigrated together to America. Family records show Thomas L. Prendergast was born in County Mayo, Ireland. We believe County Mayo was their home before leaving Ireland. In 1860 the entire family was living at their farm in Illinois. John Prendergast died on 19 June 1873, and Bridget died on 24 February 1861. They are buried at the Lostland Cemetery in La Salle County, Illinois.

Thomas L. Prendergast, the third son of John and Bridget Prendergast, was born 13 January 1839 in County Mayo, Ireland. He married Julia Keenan in 1863. She was born 6 January 1839 in Ireland and came to this country in 1853 after the death of her parents, Ed Keenan and Anna Cain. She left Ireland for America with some friends when she was 14 years old. The trip was made on a sailing vessel, and was a voyage of several weeks. She had an older brother living in Peru, IL, so when she arrived in this country, her first destination was St. Louis, and then she traveled up the Illinois River to Peru. Julia resided in Peru until 1863 when she married Thomas in La Salle County, IL. After the marriage they immediately moved to Lostland, IL. Thomas and Julia had ten children, seven boys and three girls: John Charles b. 1863, Edward "Ned" Michael b. 1864, Agnes Bridget b. 1867, Patrick Joseph b. 1869, Thomas Francis b. 1869, Mary Ellen b. 1871, James R. b. 1874, Richard Anthony b. 1875, Julia b. 1878, and William A. b. 1881. Thomas L Prendergast died on 24 May 1895, and Julia died on 3 December 1926. They were buried at the Lostland Cemetery.

Thomas Francis Prendergast, the fourth son of Thomas L. and Julia Keenan Prendergast, was born 18 October 1869. He was raised on the family farm consisting of 320 acres near Streator, IL. He married Celia "Marcella" Cain, the daughter of Anthony Cain and Anna Jennett, on 26 February 1906, in Streator, IL. Marcella was born 15 September 1868 in Streator. Both her parents were born in Ireland. Her father, Anthony was the son of Thomas Cain and Sarah Berry from County Mayo, Ireland. Her mother, Anna Jennett, was the daughter of Matthew Jennett and Marcella Halligan of County Louth, Ireland. The Jennetts immigrated directly to La Salle Co., IL in 1849 and the Cain's immigrated to Savannah, GA, and then after Thomas Cain's death they moved to LaSalle County.

Thomas and Marcella moved to Cedar Rapids, IA, for a brief time, and then to the Sanborn and Hartley, IA, area. Thomas operated a butcher shop and farmed 240 acres near Hartley. They were the parents of four children; Francis, who died in infancy; Everett who md. Grace F McKenny and lived in Sibley, IA; Pearl who md. John E. "Ed" Maguire and lived in Hartley and Sheldon, IA, and Julia "Jule" who married Earl W. Washer and lived in Sheldon, IA.

Thomas and Marcella made their home in Hartley after retiring from the farm, where on 25 May 1938 Marcella passed away. Thomas died in Hartley on 12 June 1948. Both Tom and Marcella are buried at St. Cecelia's Cemetery in Sanborn, IA.

Participant 43111: Patrick Prendergast, b. ca. 1781, of County Mayo, was a tenant farmer of considerable status. He married Mary, maiden name unknown. Patrick was located on the General Valuation of Ratable Properties in Ireland, Union of Claremorris (published 1856), County Mayo (p. 24) which says, "In 1856 Patrick Prendergast held from Lord Oranmore a house, out offices, and 127 acres, 1 rood, and 27 perches in the townland of Ballyfarnagh (commonly spelled Ballyfarna) in the civil parish of Kilcolman."

"Patrick's son, Michael Prendergast, was born ca. 1818. That means that he was 30 at the time of the Great Famine. It is my guess that he had but lost a young family during that terrible time. In any event, the earliest reference to his marrying is in 1865. His bride was a girl 30 years his junior."

His son, Patrick Thomas Prendergast, affectionately called "Black Pat" was a quiet, sweet man, always kind and fun to be around. He was a farmer and rate collector. Black Pat's son arrived through the port of New York in 1926. The paternal line of this family has been in County Mayo for generations. This family has been researched by Judith Leder.

Participant 3376: Edmund Penders, first known to me as "Anonymous" Penders, tested independently. His family has since contacted me and provided his identity. Edmund Penders was born ca. 1814 and lived in the townland of Upper Macroney in County Cork, near the borders of Counties Tipperary and Waterford. A report by one of his descendents, written in first person, states that Penders is one of many shortened versions of Prendergast. "Indeed, some of the baptismal records of our own Pinders/Penders family in Ireland used the name Prendergast."

Edmund married Mary Doran, and they immigrated with six known children to Vermont around 1854, to the slate company town at Castleton, VT. They lived in company housing, and he worked as a ledgerman for the slate factory. Edmund was granted U.S. citizenship in 1858. In 1862 he bought 25 acres of dairy land, later adding to it nine acres, and then 65 acres. By 1879, all of Edmund's mortgages had been paid off. Edmund and Mary are buried at the Catholic cemetery at Fair Haven, VT, with three of their children. Edmund's descendent is a perfect 25-marker match with the following Participant N5402.

Participant N5402: Thomas Prendergast was born 1783, probably in Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland. He married Mary Murphy in 1816, and they are listed on the Clonoulty/Rossmore Parish Register in County Tipperary. He died in 1851 and is buried at Old St. Mary's Church, Catholic Church of Ireland, at Clonmel. Thomas was a farmer, merchant, tanner, leather seller, and butcher.

John Prendergast, son of Thomas and Mary, was born in 1816 at Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland. He married Jane Mary Mulcahy in 1857 at the Holy Family Parish Church in Ardfinnan in County Tipperary. John was an Independent Liberal and supporter of John Bagwell, served as a corporation Councillor for Clonmel, and was mayor of Clonmel in 1856. In 1857 John was admitted as a Freeman by right of an apprenticeship which was due to the generosity of Edmond Power, an important bridge-builder between Catholics and Protestants. John Prendergast was a generous benefactor of St. Mary's church in Irishtown. When his sons were enrolled at Blackrock College in Dublin in 1872, their mother listed their surname as "de Prendergast." It should be noted that the de Prendergast spelling did not apply to all Prendergasts who attended the college. Participant # N5402 is a descendent of John and Jane's son, Michael Fitzmaurice Prendergast, born 1867.

Group 2:

Participant 13909: James Prendergast, b. ca. 1820, of County Tipperary, Ireland

Analysis of DNA Testing - Group 2:

A Haplogroup of "I" has been predicted for this participant whose family has a long history in County Tipperary, Ireland. One can see that there are eleven one-step mutations, four two-step mutations, and three three-step mutations between this participant and Participant # 1968 in Group 1. Participant # 13909 definitely does not share a common Prendergast ancestor with the men in Groups 1- 4.

Group 3

Participant 28400: John Pendergrass b. by 1741 + Hanner > Moses Pendergrass b. 1780 NC + Nancy Wheeler > Rev. Cordy Pendergrass b. 1819 + Manerva Thompson > Daniel Boone Carter Prendergrass b. 1857 + Martha Bolling > George Washington Pendergrass b. 1888

Participant 31191: John Pendergrass b. by 1741 + Hanner > Moses Pendergrass b. 1780 NC + Nancy Wheeler > Rev. Cordy Pendergrass b. 1819 + Manerva Thompson > Daniel Boone Carter Prendergrass b. 1857 + Martha Bolling > George Washington Pendergrass b. 1888

Participant 30906: John Pendergrass b. by 1741 + Hanner > Moses Pendergrass b. 1780 NC + Nancy Wheeler > Rev. Cordy Pendergrass b. 1819 + Manerva Thompson > William Boring Pendergrass b. 1853

Participant 37387: John Pendergrass b. by 1741 + Hanner > Jesse Pendergrass, b. by 1763 NC + Rachel Vigors 1784

Participant 37388: John Pendergrass b. by 1741 + Hanner > Jesse Pendergrass, b. by 1764 NC + Rachel Vigors 1784

Participant 30905: John Prendergrass* b. ca. 1757 + Margaret Pownall > John Prendergrass, JR b. 1777 + Jincy Howze > Levi M. Pendergrass b. 1804 + Cynthia Shackleford > Thomas Jefferson Pendergrass b. 1854 + Mary Louiza Camilla "Ludie" Melson. *Note the variation of spelling in this line.

Analysis of DNA Testing - Group 3:

The earliest known members of this Pendergrass family have been found on documents in North Carolina beginning in the 1750's. It should be noted that two sets of the participants are very closely related. Participants 28400 and 31191 are uncle and nephew. Participants 37387 and 37388 are brothers.

Participants 28400 and 31191 trace their lineage from John Pendergrass who first appeared on the 1757 Tax List in Granville County, NC. His date of birth has been estimated as by at least 1741. John was a contemporary of men named William and Spencer Pendergrass, also of Granville County, and by 1771 a second man named John Pendergrass, lived nearby in Bute County, NC.

In 1789, John bought land in Wake County, NC, and he died there in 1794. His will listed his wife Hanner, and children Jesse, Anney, and Moses. Participants 28400 and 31191 trace their lineage through John's son, Moses Pendergrass.

Participant 30906 shares the first three generations of his pedigree with the above two participants. His lineage diverges from theirs in the 1850's, with the births of two of the sons of Rev. Cordy Pendergrass: William Boring Pendergrass, born 1853, and Daniel Boone Carter Pendergrass, born 1857.

Participants 37387 and 37388 trace their ancestry from John Pendergrass and his wife Hanner, through their son Jesse Pendergrass who married Rachel Vigors.

Participant 30905 descends from a John Pendergrass, born in the 1750's in North Carolina who married Margaret Pownall, daughter of John and Margaret Pownall. During the 1770's, John and Margaret Pendergrass moved to Lancaster County, SC. Family legend is that John was sympathetic with both the Tories and the American Patriots at different times, and he was hanged by his Lancaster County neighbors in 1777. His son, John Pendergrass, Jr., born 1771, married Jane "Jincy" Howze, and died in Jackson, now Barrow County, GA, in 1868. There are extant Bible records for the family of John Pendergrass, Jr., and Jincy Howze.

Group 4:

Participant 3375: John Pendors b. ca. 1800 + Margaret Pender, of County Clare, Ireland > likely son Michael Pender b. 1825 Ireland + Johanna Hickey > Tom Pendors b. 1858 VT w. partner Jane Hayes > Thomas Martin Hayes, b. 1887 VT + Mary Morgan

Participant 27123: John Pendors b. ca.1800 + Margaret Pender, of County Clare, Ireland > Thomas Pender b. 1837 Ireland, d. 1915 NY + Bridget Healey > John Pendors b. 1860 VT + Catherine Burns > Tom Penders b. 1885 VT + Grace Wolton

Analysis of DNA Testing - Group 4:

The earliest records for this Pendors / Pender / Penders family place them in County Clare, Ireland. John Pendors, born ca. 1800, married Margaret Pender (her maiden name), and lived in the Coolmeen/Cranny area of County Clare.

Between 1850 and 1860, six young men named John, Thomas, James, Michael, Henry and Patrick Penders immigrated to the United States, with five of them locating, at least in the beginning, in Rutland County, VT. The 1915 death certificate of Thomas Penders named John and Margaret Pendors as his parents, and Thomas' obituary listed surviving brothers as James Penders of Steubenville, OH, and John Penders of West Rutland, VT. (The others had already deceased).

Substantial research by present-day family members shows that all of these men were very closely related, and some of the evidence suggests that they all could have been brothers. These documents include census records where some of these men, and their families, lived with or very near each other; and baptismal records in St. Mary's Catholic Church in Fair Haven, VT, and St. Bridget's Catholic Church in West Rutland, VT, showing that a daughter of Thomas was sponsored by Henry in 1874; a daughter of Thomas was sponsored by Michael in 1876; a son of Henry was sponsored by Thomas in 1871; a daughter of Michael was sponsored by Thomas in 1859; and a son of Michael was sponsored by Patrick in 1865.

The surname of these men has been seen variously as Pender, Penders, Pendor, and Pendors, and the naturalization records for Michael and Henry list their names as "Pendergast." To date, the Pendergast spelling has not been located on any other documents for this family.

By 1859, Thomas, Michael, and Henry were located in Rutland, Rutland County, VT, where all three worked as quarry hands in the slate mines. By 1870, the families had moved about 16 miles west to Castleton, Rutland County, VT.

Participant 3375: Michael "Mike" Pender, b. ca. 1825, probable son of John Pendors and Margaret Pender, married Johanna "Julia" Hickey. They were the parents of six children, including Thomas "Tom" Pender(s), born ca. 1858 in VT.

Thomas Penders fathered a son with Jane Hayes, oldest daughter of Martin Hayes and wife Bridget O'Connell, who had emigrated from County Tipperary, Ireland. The Castleton, VT, birth registry stated the child was "T. M. Hayes, born 24 October 1877, and that his father was Thomas Penders, laborer, born Vermont."

Thomas Martin Hayes was reared by his maternal grandmother, and retained the Hayes surname. Thomas M. Hayes married Mary Morgan.

Participant 27123: Thomas Pender, b. ca. 1837, proven son of John Pendors and Margaret Pender, married Bridget Healey. They had 15 children, seven of whom survived, and by 1880, they had moved their family to Cohoes, Albany County, NY, where he was a laborer. In 1900, Thomas was a night watchman in Albany County, reported that he had immigrated to the U.S. in 1857, had resided here 43 years, and was a naturalized citizen. In 1910, at age 69, he had retired, although his unmarried daughter, Annie, age 43, worked as a carder in a cotton mill. Thomas and Bridget were the parents of John Pendors, born ca. 1860, a dresser tender in a cotton mill in Albany County, NY. John married Catherine Burns, and their son, Tom Pendors, born 1885, married Grace Wolten. There have been five transmission events between John Pendors, b. ca. 1800, and Participant 27123.

The results of the Y-chromosome test for descendents of Michael Penders (Participant 3375) and Thomas Penders (Participant 27123) confirm that they do share a common recent ancestor. Considerable documentation concerning the Penders / Pendors family of Group 4 is presented on the same website as that for Participant # 3376 in Group 1 at Penders DNA.

Although the family of Participant 3376 in Group 1 (of County Cork) came from Ireland to Castleton, Rutland County, VT, to work at slate mining at approximately the same time as the above family in Group 4 (of County Clare), the results of the Y-chromosome test show that the families in Group 1 and Group 4 are definitely not related. Since their places of origin in County Clare and County Cork are not near each other, their appearance at the same time and place in Vermont may have been coincidental.

These two families did intermarry, however. Catherine Pinders, born 1843, a daughter of Emund Penders and Mary Doran (see Participant 3376 in Group 1) married James Morgan. Mary Morgan, daughter of Catherine Pinders and James Morgan, married Thomas Martin Hayes (see Participant 3375 of Group 4).

Group 5:

Participant 85629: William Pender (ca. 1785-1835) and his wife Anna settled in Ontario County, NY before 1810 to farm, probably coming from New England. Family lore has our Pender ancestry immigrating to America from Scotland and of Protestant persuasion. William Pender was a documented veteran of the War of 1812, serving honorably as a Corporal with Captain Abraham Parrish's Company, Colonel Samuel Blakeslee's Regiment of Ontario County, NY, Volunteer Militia. He was present for the Battles of Black Rock and the Burning of Buffalo on the Niagara Frontier during his service from 1812 to 1814.

William's son Samuel Pender (ca. 1805-1850) also farmed near Lima and Mendon, Ontario County, NY, with his son John Pender (1825-1854).

John Pender (1825-1854) married Lovica Humphrey of Lima, NY, in 1849. She was born in 1830 and died in 1905. John and Lovica traveled to Buffalo, NY on the Erie Canal, and she gave birth to their eldest son Holley Miller Pender (1850-1932) while in the canal town of Holley, NY. From 1850-1854 the John Pender family lived in Buffalo, where he worked as a locktender on the Erie Canal north of Amherst, and as a farmer. Their second son, John Humphrey Pender, was born in 1852 and daughter Helen F. Pender in 1853. John Pender died suddenly in September 1854 in the Great Cholera Epidemic leaving his widowed wife pregnant with their third son, Frederick Charles Pender (1855-1942). Frederick Charles Pender married Anna Nalon.

Group 6:

Participant 106764: Patrick Pendergast was born ca. 1816 in Ireland. Family legend is that he immigrated to Canada before coming to the United States. He is first found on the 1850 census in New York County, NY, with his wife, Margaret, born ca. 1818 in Ireland. They were enumerated as Pat and Margt. Pendergast, and Patrick worked as a carman or casman. They were the parents of three young children, Francis b. 1844, Anna b. 1847, and Mary b. 1849. They have not been located on an 1860 census, but may be the same couple enumerated as James and Margaret Pendrgat in 1870 in New York with daughters Anne, Mary, and Ellen. This James also worked as a carman. Patrick was deceased by the time of the 1880 census, when Margaret was living with their son, Frank Pendergast in Cincinnati, in Hamilton County, OH.

Francis "Frank" Pendergast was born October 1844 in New York, and he and his wife Johanna Ducy lived in Cincinnati, Hamilton County, OH. Johanna was born in March 1847 in Ireland. The 1900 Hamilton County, OH, census says that she was the mother of 13 children, with five living. Frank worked as a wool/wood worker. Their known children were Andrew, Mary, Frank, and Maggie Pendergast. Andrew, their oldest son, worked in a carriage factory. Frank was deceased by the 1910 census, and Johanna lived in Cincinnati with their son Frank Pendergast, Jr., who changed the spelling to Penderghast.

Frank Penderghast, Jr. was born in 1870. He and his wife Mary Gannon lived in Cincinnati where he worked as a brakeman, and then a yardmaster for the railroad. Frank got a job with the Southern Railroad at the turn of the century when the Germans were in economic control of the Ohio valley. The general mood of the day was that Irish need not apply for jobs. He was very afraid of losing his job. When the German paymaster said to him, "Vat ist your name?" and he replied Pendergast, the paymaster spelled it with the German "ghast". Frank was afraid of telling the paymaster he was wrong for fear of losing his job. He changed all of his records to reflect the new spelling. The spelling has come down through his children and his children's children. Frank and Mary were the parents of five children, four of whom survived.

Group 7:

Participant 38500: Edwin Prendergast was the earliest known ancestor of this lineage. His name has also been seen as Edgar and Edward, but it appears as Edwin more often than the other versions. Edwin married Mary Ann Goldsmith, and they were in Brooklyn, Kings County, NY, by about 1835, when their son Joseph Henry Prendergast was born. According to the 1880 U.S. Census for Brooklyn, his son Joseph named his second son Edwin. In the death certificate for Joseph, his father's name was shown as Edgar and his birthplace as England.

By the time of the New York State census of 1855, Edwin was deceased, and the widow Mary Ann was living with their son, Joseph Henry Prendergast, born ca. 1835 and his bride Ripsah Conover, along with Joseph's younger sister, Mary Ann. Joseph and Ripsah were enumerated on the 1880 census in Brooklyn, Kings County, NY, with their ten children. Joseph worked as a clerk in a store, as did their oldest son, William H. Prendergast, age 28. An interesting side note is that Ripsah Conover has a genealogy back to the mid-1500's in the Netherlands through her family name of Kouwenhoven, which was Anglicized as Conover.

Harry Joseph Prendergast, son of Joseph Henry and Ripsah Prendergast, was born in 1867 in Brooklyn, Kings County, NY. He married Agnes V. Dillon in about 1898, and in 1900 they lived with Agnes' widowed father, Thomas Dillon, who had been a police officer for the City of Brooklyn in addition to, or prior to his being a stone cutter. Harry Prendergast worked as a brass polisher. In 1910 Harry was a silver worker, and in 1920 and 1930 he was the chief operator of the "National District." Harry's descendents know that Harry was a dye maker, and that the business where he worked was located on Bond Street in Brooklyn in a section then dominated by small industry.

Harry and Agnes became the parents of seven children, and her father, Thomas Dillon, continued to make his home with them.

Group 8:

Participant 114080: Biography Pending.

Group 9:

Participant 172423: Biography Pending.

Men with surnames Prendergast, Pendergrass, Pendergraft, Pender, Pinder, Pendy, etc., are encouraged to join the DNA Y-chromosome study at: Prendergast DNA Study

Last Updated on 9/15/08
By Wallace W. Souder