MURR > BOWEN > GOODMAN (T2a1b1a1) MURR > FINE > SPURLOCK (T2a1b1a1) MURR > FINE > COPPLE (T2a1b1a1)
Kit # 1410. Susannah b. c1750, d. 1805 Rowan Co. NC, + Michael Murr, > Mary Murr b. c1769 +1 John Bowen 1785 Rowan Co, NC > Margaret "Peggy" Bowen b. 1788 NC + George Washington Goodman > Mary Ann (twin) Goodman b. 1804 Clark Co, IN + John Warren Brooks. HVR1 Haplo-group T2a1b1a1 Kit # 1964. Susannah b. c 1750, d. 1805 Rowan Co. NC, + Michael Murr, > Mary Murr b. c 1769 +2 Christian Fine c1800 > Catherine Fine b. c1808 NC + Miles Spurlock 1843 Marion Co, IL > Margaret Ann Spurlock b. 1852 IL + Thomas Jasper Pendergraft 1869 Newton Co, MO HVR1 Haplo-group T2a1b1a1 Kit # 23780. Susannah b. c 1750, d. 1805 Rowan Co. NC, + Michael Murr, > Mary Murr b. c 1769 +2 Christian Fine c1800 > Christina Fine b.1804 NC +2 Andrew Copple 1835 Clark Co, IN > Mary Elizabeth Copple b. 1844 Marion Co, IL + Robert D. Sanders 1873 Marion Co, IL HVR1 Haplo-group T2a1b1a1
HVR1 Muta-tions 16126C HVR1 Muta-tions 16126C HVR1 Muta-tions 16126C
16294T 16294T 16294T
16296T 16296T 16296T
16324C 16324C 16324C
16519C 16519C 16519C
HVR2 Muta-tions 73G HVR2 Muta-tions 73G HVR2 Muta-tions 73G
263G 263G 263G
315.1C 315.1C 315.1C


Copyright © December 2003, Updated 2007, 2011
Mary Fern Souder

Generation 1:

Susannah, wife of Michael Murr, was born before 1750 and died sometime between the time her will was written on 7 November 1804 and probated on 5 October 1805. Her husband, Michael Murr, was a prominent man in Rowan County, NC. He owned a plantation, a few town lots in Salisbury, and was also a potter (he owned a business that made clay objects such as pots and pipe stems). One who does research in Rowan County, NC, will see frequent mention of him. On 7 November 1790 Michael was appointed Constable for the Town of Salisbury and its Liberties. He was also a Trustee in the Zion Lutheran Church (aka Organ Church because it had the only organ in the county). Only the German language was spoken in that church during this time period, so Michael (and presumably Susanna) were of German descent, and Murr families are still found in present-day Germany.

The Murr surname has been spelled as Murr, More and Morr, and occasionally as Moore, in Rowan County, but is not to be confused with the Irish Moore family that was allied with the Cunninghams. Long-time Murr researcher Evelyn McCabe has seen some Murr families that changed the spelling from Murr to Moore as time went along.

Three documents that were recorded in Rowan County, NC, verify the names of the surviving heirs of Michael and Susanna Murr. These are the wills of Michael and Susanna Murr and the final deed of sale of Michael Murr's property. The documents are lengthy, but will be transcribed in their entirety because they give the reader exceptional insight into the family life and values typical of those who lived over 200 years ago. Spelling and punctuation conform to the original, with a few extra spaces added for clarity of sentences.

Will of Michael Murr

In the Name of God, Amen

I Michail Moore (sic) of the borough of salisbury do make this my last will and Testament, my Soul I assign to its Creator in all humble hope of its' future happiness as in the disposal of a Being infinitely Good And as to my Body my will is that it be buried in a decent manner at the discretion of my Executors. I do appoint my beloved wife Susanna and Casper Cinder of the Borough aforesaid to Execute this my last will and Testament. It is my will that my said Executors should (in a reasonable time after my decease) dispose of all my personal Estate to the best advantage excepting such parts thereof as I herein particularly deposed of out of which they are to pay my funeral Expenses, the remainder towards payments of my debts.

Item. I Bequeath to my said wife Susanna two Cows and also her choice of two Bedsteads and Beding together with the mould or instruments of making pipes.

Item. I Bequeath to my son George Michale a Ceartain young Horse Colt now being one year old and also I desire that he should receive the sum of five Pounds in his ariving at the age of twenty one years exclusive of an equal Share with the other Children when the remainder of my Estate shall be divided in case it should please God that he should die before he receives his part the whole to be equally divided among the surviving Children.

Item. I devise that my Executors may (as soon as they can conveniently and to advantage) sell my dwelling House in town together with 70 Acres deeded adjoining Bar baricks (sic) Land out of which they must pay the remainder of my Debts. Should any remain and any balance that should remain after paying my debts I desire the same to be deposed in the best manner at the discreation of my said Executors for the advantage and benefit of the Children.

Item. Should it not be in the power of my Executors to sell the House and land before mentioned then my desire is that they sell the tract of land I bought from Fredrick Getcher to be applied in manner before mentioned but I should rather wish the first to be sold. Then whichever of the premises remain unsold my will is that my wife should hold the same living her Widow hood should she marry or at her death I devise the same to be sold to the best advantage and the money arising from the sale thereof to be equally divided among the Children that should be then alive.

Item. The plantation or house & plantation are given to my wife to enable her to raise the Children and I do require her and my other Executor to bind them out as they grow up to some biade (sic) or Calling to enable them to procure an honest living for themselves herafter this I leave to their discreation This is my last will and testament signed and sealed by me this 17th day of August in the year of our Lord 1784

signed sealed and acknowledged as his

Last will and Testament         Michael (his signature) Moore (sic)
In the presence of us
John Lewis Beard
Paul RadSmith
Michal Troy
Rowan County, NC, Will Book B, pp. 162-3.

Transcribed 25 January 2011 by Mary Fern (Vanpool) Souder

*Note: Casper Cinder/Kinder, a hatter, was deceased by 23 December 1788 when Susanna Morr, "the surviving executor of the will of deceased Michael Morr," sold to Peter Brown 70 Ĺ acres for 14 Pounds. This land was part of 170 acres, and was located next to Barbarick near sd. Peter Brown. Witnessed by David Woodson and George Michael Morr, and proven by the latter in May 1789. Rowan County Deed Book 11, p. 719. (Some think that based on the surname of her co-executor, Susanna's maiden name may have been Kinder. However, additional documentation for this claim has not been presented-M.F.Souder).

On 6 May 1790 John Murr, orphan of Michael Murr, was bound to Tobias Furrer to become a blacksmith. John was aged 10 years and ten months, thus born September 1779. He is allegedly the John Murr who went to Washington County, TN and married Mary Brown there on 22 December 1798.

On 27 November 1793 a State of North Carolina grant (# 2242) was given to Peter Brown, containing 37 acres located next to Susanna Morr, Michael Swink, Peter Brown & Spruce McCay. Rowan County, NC, Deed Book 13, page 445.

Susanna Morr was enumerated as head of household on the 1800 census with one male age 16-26 and two females age 16-26. She was listed as over age 45.

A summary of Murr legal transactions is available on microfiche by order from any LDS branch library. "The McCubbins Collection" is a vast amount of data that Mrs. McCubbins extracted and organized by surname for every family that lived in Rowan County, NC.

Will of Susanna Morr

Susanna Moor's last will by word of mouth made & Declared by her about the seventh Day of November AD 1804 During a spell of illness at her own house in the County of Rowan & State of N. Carolina in the presence of us who have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses thereto being specially required to do so by the said Susanna.

My will is that my two Daughters Christianna, & Dorothea shall have my two feather beds & their furniture compleat, as these two Daughters have done more for me than any of the rest of my children.
Signed:                     Barbara (her x mark) Swink
                       Elizabeth (her x mark) Swink
Sworn to before me this
7th Day of October 1805
Max.. Chambers, JP
Rowan County, NC, Will Book E, page 97.

Note* It appears that Susanna had very little of her own to bequeath, and the beds may be the ones left to her in her husband's will.

Heirs of Michael Murr

On 4 February 1806 a very poorly drafted deed of sale was recorded in Deed Book 19, pp. 603-5 in Rowan County, NC. This deed is a record of the heirs of Michael Murr selling their rights to the interest in some of Michaelís property. Spelling and punctuation of the original document have been preserved. Transcribed 9 December 2007 by descendent Mary Fern (Vanpool) Souder.

This Indenture made the fourth Day of February in the year of our Lord one thousand Eight Hundred and Six Between Richard Trotter owning the rights (sic) Thomas McCany L Jacobs John Morr and Mattias More Christian fine and Mary his wife Dorathea Morr and Christianna Morr all of the county of Rowan and State of North Carolina of the one part and Maxwell Chambers of the County of Rowan and State of North Carolina of the other part witness that the Said Richard (sic) Christian & Mary his wife Dorathea & Christianna & Matthias for and in consideration of the Sum of three hundred and fifty five Dollars to us in hand paid by the Said Maxwell Chambers the Receipt whereof the Said Richard (sic) Christian & Mary his wife and Dorathea & Christianna & Matthias Morr doth hereby acknowledge, hath given granted Bargained & Sold aliend? and Confirmed and by these presents doth give grant Bargain & Sell, alien? and Confirm unto the Sd. Maxwell Chambers his Heirs and assigns forever, all that Tract and parcel of Land Situate, lying and being in the County of Rowan aforesaid it being part of 629 acres originally granted to Henry Zivily & by Him Conveyed to Jacob Arrand, who conveyed the Same to John Mitchell all which May fully appear of Record.

Beginning at a pine the third corner mentioned in the original Survey and runs East 22 Chains & 93 links to a Small White Oak, thence South 74 chains to a Stake on the original line, then with the old line West 22 chains & 93 links to a pine, corner to the original Survey, then with the old Line to the Beginning, and all houses buildings, orchards gardens, Inclosures & Improvements and also all the Woods ways Waters and Watercourses and all and Every the appurtenances thereunto belonging or in anywise appurtaining and reversion and reverswork, remainder and remainders, rents, Issues and profits of the aforesaid Lands and premises and every part thereof and all the Estate right Fette Interest claims property and Demand whatsoever of the Sd. of in and to the Land and premises hereby granted to have and to hold the aforesaid Land and premises with the appurtenances unto the Sd. Maxwell Chambers his Heirs and assigns to the proper use and behoof of the Sd. Maxwell Chambers his Heirs and assigns forever: and the Sd. Richd. Trotter Christian Fine & Mary his wife Dorathea Christianna & Matthias Morr for themselves and their Heirs the aforesaid Land and premises and Every part thereof against them and their Heirs and assains the Claim or Claims of all and Every other person or persons whatsoever to the Sd. Maxwell Chambers his Heirs and assigns Shall and will forever Warrant & Defend by these presents In Witness whereof the Sd. Have herein noted their Hands and affixed their Seals the Day and year first above written:

Sealed & Delivered        Rd. (his signature) Trotter       his Seal
In the presence         Christian (his X mark) Fine     his Seal
Ja. Fisher           Mary (her X mark) Fine       her Seal
               Dorathea (her X mark) Morr        her Seal
               Christianna (her X mark) Morr     her Seal
               Matthias (his signature) Morr       his Seal
Rowan County of February Sessions 1806
It is hereby certified that this Deed was
Proved in open Court by Ja. Fisher recorded
And ordered to be registered

* Since Mary Murr Fine signed the deed, why didnít the wives of Richard Trotter, L. Jacobs and Thomas MaCany also sign? It appears that Richard Trotter had previously acquired the property rights of some of the heirs of Michael Murr, but that he only owned the rights of those mentioned in the first paragraph of the deed (and not mentioned again in the document), and who also did not sign the document (Thomas McCany/McCay, L. Jacobs and John Morr). Thomas McCany might be Thomas McCay who married Susanna Morr on 2 January 1802 in Rowan County, and perhaps L. Jacobs had married another daughter. Richard Trotter may have been unmarried. John Murr who was about age 25 at the time of the transaction had allegedly moved to Washington County, TN, and may have sold his share before leaving.

*George Michael Morr, oldest son of Michael Murr, served as the bondsman for the 1802 marriage of his sister, Susanna Morr, but George Michael was not mentioned in the above 1806 deed because he died ca. 1803.

It appears that Susanna, wife of Michael Murr, was the mother of at least eight children: Mary, George Michael, Christianna, Dorothea, John, Mathias, an unknown daughter, and Susanna Murr.

Generation 2:

I have long suspected that my ancestor, Catherine Fine, born ca. 1808 in NC, was a sister of Christina Fine, born 1804 in NC, because their lives closely paralleled each other. Fortunately, there is a solid paper trail linking Christina to her parents, and Christina's two marriages and children are also well documented. The parents of Christina Fine were Mary Murr, b. ca. 1767 in NC, and her 2nd husband Christian Fine, born 1780.

My Catherine Fine had at least one child out of wedlock prior to her marriage (and probably three such children). She married Miel Spirlock, a poor widower with 12 children, when she was about 35 years old, on 19 December 1843, in Marion County, IL. She was listed on the marriage bond as "Miss Catherine Fine." In 1850 the couple lived in Jefferson County, IL.

There was no paper trail linking Catherine Fine to her parents. However, there were many circumstances which linked her to Christina Fine, a proven daughter of Christian Fine and Mary Murr. These circumstances include:

  1. Christina and Catherine Fine were in the same county in Indiana in the 1820's and 1830's, and in the same location in Illinois in 1840. (Although they lived in different counties in 1840 and 1850, the townships in which they lived adjoined each other).
  2. On 16 December 1847 in Jefferson County, IL, Christina Fine's son, Rev. James Snow, Jr., married Matilda Spurlock, daughter of Miel Spirlock and his first wife, Rachel Mills. To see results of a mitochondrial DNA test of a female descendent of Rachel Mills, click here: Mills Mitochondrial DNA Study.
  3. The 1850 census in Jefferson County, IL, shows that William Fine, age 12, lived in the home of William Snow (oldest son of Christina Fine and her first husband James Snow, Sr.). This is the same William Fine, age 21, who lived with Catherine Fine and her husband Miel Spirlock in 1860 in Franklin County, IL.
  4. In 1850 in Marion County, IL, Catherine's son, Salem Fine, lived next door to James Snow, Jr. (son of Christina Fine and James Snow, Sr.). For additional information about the life of Salem Fine, see Group 2 in the Fine DNA Study: Fine DNA Study.
  5. In 1850 in Marion County, IL, the household of Christina Fine and 2nd husband Andrew Copple included Mary (Murr) Fine, age 81, and Eliza J. Fine, age 16. (Elizabeth J. Fine married Jacob Hiltibidal on 30 September 1854, and died 19 months later).
  6. In 1860 in Marion County, IL, the household of Christina Fine and 2nd husband Andrew Copple included Mary (Murr) Fine, age 100. Recollections of cousin Opal Jones Sears Swan (1907-1996) include stores told by her elders regarding "old Granny Fine," who walked with a cane part of the time and a crutch part of the time. Mary Fine's age in 1860 would definitely qualify her to be an "old Granny Fine."

With so much circumstantial evidence linking Catherine and Christina Fine, it was obvious that mitochondrial DNA testing was needed for a female descendent of Catherine Fine and any of the proven female descendents of Mary Murr. The results of these tests would either refute of confirm the hypothesis that these women shared a common maternal ancestor.

Mary Murr Bowen Fine left three proven daughters, two by her first husband, John Bowen, whom she married on 17 December 1785 in Rowan County, NC, and one by her 2nd husband, Christian Fine, who was mentioned in the sale of the property of Mary's deceased father. These daughters were:

  1. Margaret "Peggy" Bowen, b. 1 October 1788 in NC, md. George Washington Goodman and they were in Clark County, IN, by 1804, in Monroe County, IN, by 1819, and then moved to Coles County, IL. Margaret and George Goodman were the parents of eleven children. Margaret died 30 December 1876 in Coles County, IL.
  2. Nancy Bowen, b. 3 February 1793 in NC, md. Stephen Stone on 20 October 1812 in Clark County, IN. They relocated to Coles County, IL. In May of 1863, after Stephen Stone had died, eleven members of their family made the trek in two covered wagons from Coles County, IL, to California. Nancy was 70 years old at the time, and she walked most of the way. An account of their travels has been published by H. Clark Lamb, and given to the State Library in Salem, Oregon: "The John Stone family of Coles County, IL: Their Move to the West--1863-1870." Nancy and Steven Stone were the parents of ten children. She died on 16 August 1874 in Oregon.
  3. Christina Fine, b. 24 August 1804 in NC, md. 1st James Snow, Sr., on 10 March 1822 in Clark County, IN. She md. 2nd Andrew Copple on 18 March 1835 in Clark County, IN. They moved to Marion County, IL, before 1840, but it should be noted that the census has mis-transcribed the census page and has the county identified as Macon County, IL. Christina and Andrew Copple lived in Marion County until their deaths. She and James Snow, Sr., were the parents of two sons, William and Rev. James Snow, Jr., and she and Andrew Copple were the parents of four children, Jacob, John Lemuel "Lem," Simpson and Mary Elizabeth Copple. She died on 19 August 1873 in Walnut Hill, Racoon Township, Marion County, IL, and is buried in the Little Grove Church of Christ Cemetery in Rome Township, Jefferson County, IL, where her son, James Snow, Jr., was pastor.

The composition of the 1840 household of Christian and Mary Fine in Jefferson County, IL, were as follows:

Males: 1 less than 5; 1 10-15; 1 60-70
Females: 1 5-10; 1 20-30; 1 80-90

The ages and genders of the additional persons with Christian and Mary Fine in 1840 are consistent with them being Catherine Fine b. 1808, Salem Fine b. 1827, Eliza J. Fine b. 1834, and William Fine b. 1838-39, all mentioned above.

Salem Fine's granddaughter, Icy Fine Crowder, stated that her mother told her "after Salem was born without a legal father his mother homesteaded by herself." Rather that having her own official homestead allotment as a teenager, it seems more likely that Catherine struggled as a single mother, perhaps grew her own garden, and lived with or near her parents and siblings.

Catherine and Miel Spirlock had four children of their own: Nathaniel "Thornton" D., James K. Polk, Sarah Jane, and Margaret Ann Spirlock. Catherine and Miel lost their oldest son, Nathaniel "Thornton" D. Spirlock in 1864 after he contracted a case of Reubeola while he serving in Company B of the Missouri Cavalry in the Federal Army during the Civil War. A copy of the pension application made in behalf of Thornton is available from the National Archives.

In addition to the natural grief one experienced with the loss of a son, during this time in history it was especially tragic because sons were expected to provide for their parents when they became aged. In a claim filed in the Treasury Department in Washington, D.C., received on 20 July 1864, Miel Spirlock applied for a settlement regarding his deceased son, Nathaniel T. Spirlock. It was granted to Miel Spirlock on 5 October 1865. The document does not say what the settlement was. The settlement Miel received was recorded as No. 317938, Certificate 193974. Those attesting to the claim that Nathaniel died unmarried, leaving no widow, child or children surviving him were Jno. W. West, (husband of Malinda Spurlock, the daughter of Miel and Rachel), and Jno. A. Chappell, (grandson of Miel and Rachel and son of Rev. Jesse Mordeciah Chappell and Bethena Spurlock).

On 31 May 1867, Miel and Catherine Spurlock filed another claim (which was rejected on 19 October 1867). The document does not state what the claim was for. Those attesting that Nathaniel was their son, and that he died leaving no widow, child or children, were Jno. and James K. Spirlock (John was the son of Miel and Rachel and James K. was the son of Miel and Catherine).

Seventeen years later, beginning 17 July 1884, Catherine Fine Spirlock of Mountain, McDonald County, MO, applied for a mother's pension on behalf of her deceased son, Nathaniel Thornton D. Spirlock, who died on 3 May 1864. Witnesses to this document were John L. Barr and Clar't? E. Duval (identities unknown).

Catherine was granted a pension of $8.00 per month on 24 July 1884.

On 8 April 1885, Jesse H. Trent and wife Louisa J. Trent (John H. Trent's sister Linnie Trent was the 2nd wife of Salem Fine, and Louisa Trent was the granddaughter of Miel and Rachel and daughter of Ellis Webb and Elizabeth Spurlock), along with Nancy J. Bell (relationship unknown), all of Cedar County, MO, stated that they had been acquainted with Catherine Spirlock and her son, Thornton Spirlock, and that he had remained at his parents' home, laboring on the farm and contributing to the support of his mother until he enlisted.

On 24 February, 1886, John A. Chappell (grandson of Meil and Rachel, son of Rev. Jesse M. Chappell and Bethana Spurlock), a resident of Sullivan County, MO, whose P. O. address was Unionville, Putnam County, MO, made an affidavit, swearing that he served in the same unit as Nathaniel T. Spirlock, and that he was also ill and in the same hospital in St. Louis when Nathaniel was there. John swore that Nathaniel was not married, and had no wife, child, or children depending on him.

Catherine's pension was increased to $12.00 per month on 29 March 1886.

It appears that communication between Catherine, the U. S. Government, and her witnesses in distant counties was delayed, because affidavits continued to be filed regarding the justification of her claim, even after she had had an increase in money:

On 26 April 1886 Catherine made another affidavit, stating that she was totally unable to furnish any more evidence for her claim, and had gone to great trouble and expense in (previously) furnishing the best obtainable information. Witnesses were J. L. (or S?) Talburt and Moses Pendergraft (brother of Thomas Jasper Pendergraft who married Margaret Ann Spurlock, youngest daughter of Catherine and Miel Spirlock.

On 8 December 1886, Jesse H. Trent, Louisa J. Trent, and Nancy J. Bell, all of Cedar County, MO, signed individual affidavits as to the merits of Catherine Fine receiving a mother's pension. These affidavits mention that in 1863 Miel and Catherine Spirlock moved from near Wasburn (Barry County, MO) to Unionville, Putnam County, MO, where they put out one crop on rented land. The next year they moved to Brownville, Nemaha County, NE, where they lived one or two years, then returned to southern Missouri. Jesse Trent mentioned again that he never knew Miel Spirlock to own land, and that he farmed rented land. Jesse and Louisa's deposition stated that Miel had no property except a team of oxen, one or two cows, and household furniture, when he lived near them in 1863. John H. Trent further deposed in 1886 that Catherine and Miel Spirlock had "given up housekeeping, one living with one child and the other with another."

Family legend is that Miel Spirlock died in the home of his son, John B. Spurlock, in Freedom Township, Eagle Hill, Polk County, AR, at age 101, which would have occurred ca. 1894. Catherine received her last pension payment on 4 February 1899, and the payments were dropped on 2 April 1899 due to her death, at about age 91. This certificate was filed in Topeka, KS, indicating that she was probably a Kansas resident when she died. At that time her two daughters were still in McDonald County, MO, her sons, Salem Fine and James K. Polk Spirlock were thought to be in Indian Territory, so she may have lived with Salem's son, William Jacob Fine and wife Estella Kent, who were enumerated in Cherokee County, KS, in 1900. (I am indebted to R. Bruce Thorsen for locating Catherine's pension application for her son Thornton Spirlock).

Mitochondrial DNA Results:

I am deeply grateful to my long-time friend and collaborator, Evelyn McCabe, a descendent of Mary Murr through her daughter, Margaret Bowen, for her generous assistance in reconstructing the Murr family and for locating a qualified participant for this study. Margaret Bowen's descendent was Participant # 1410 and in 2001, at age 98, she was the first participant of this study who tested. This was in early days of using DNA for genetic genealogy.

The second participant, a descendent of Catherine Fine, is represented by Participant # 1964. In 2002, her results showed three fewer mutations than did the descendent of Margaret Bowen. Family Tree DNA reported that the mutations for the descendent of Margaret Bowen were still well within the acceptable limits for this degree of relationship, and the fact that Margaret Bowen's participant was 98 years old at the time the sample had taken has not resulted in the mutations.

Since 2001, the technology for genetic genealogy has made considerable advancements, and Margaret Bowen's DNA was re-tested. At this point, when up-dated parameters for calculating mutations were used, the two participants were an exact match.

To further support the hypothesis that Margaret Bowen and Catherine Fine shared the same maternal ancestor, in 2006 a descendent of Christina Fine Copple was located. She is represented by Participant # 23780, and her test results were a perfect match with the descendents of Margaret Bowen and Catherine Fine. These updated test results are mentioned here in order to explain the discrepancy between previously published results and current results for Margaret Bowen's descendent.

The results of the above three participants corroborate the hypothesis that all three women share a common maternal ancestor.

In addition to Evelyn McCabe, I am deeply indebted for the assistance of R. Bruce Thorsen, the late Howard Horton Harvey, Jeanne Burke, the late Jeanette Wilson of the Davidson County, NC, Public Library, Marvin and Neoma Tingdahl, and Nancy Helvey.

Matches as of July 2002 for Margaret Bowen, Catherine Fine and Christina Fine:

Last Updated on 3/26/2013
By Wallace W. Souder